Art and Culture/Wars and Battles - 11th C to 16th C

From Quiz Revision Notes
War Campaign/Theatre Date Started Date Ended Protaganists Major Battles/Sieges Treaty/Armistice Comments
Year or Date Started Year or Date Ended Location/Name Commanders Victor Date(s) Location/Name
Viking invasion of Ireland Irish Vikings 23 April 1014 Clontarf Brian Boru Munster Sigtrygg Vikings Irish Brian Boru and son killed but Irish victory saw end to Viking threat to Ireland
Byzantine - Bulgarian War 1002 1014 Byzantium Bulgaria 29 July 1014 Kleidion Basil II Byzantium Samuil Bulgaria Byzantium Reportedly Basil took 14,000 prisoners, split them into groups of 100, blinded 99 and left 1 in each group with 1 eye to lead the rest home
Danish Conquest of England 1016 1016 Saxons Danes 18 October 1016 Ashingdon Edmund Ironside Saxons Cnut Danes Danes Edmund and Cnut concluded a peace treaty. Edmund died a month later leaving Cnut as sole King.
Norman Invasion of Italy Pope Normans 18 June 1053 Civitate Pope Leo IX Papal army Robert Guiscard Normans Normans Pope Leo IX was captured
War in Scotland Macbeth Malcolm Canmore March 1057 Lumphanan Macbeth Scots Malcolm Canmore Scots Malcolm Canmore Macbeth killed
Norwegian Invasion of England 1066 1066 English Vikings 20 September 1066 Gate Fulford Edwin, Morcar English Harald Hardrada Vikings Vikings The defeat of the Northern Earls Edwin and Morcar left York open for Harald and meant Harold had to march North instead of waiting for the Norman invasion
English Vikings 25 September 1066 Stamford Bridge Harold II English Harald Hardrada Vikings England Harald Hardrada and Earl Tostig killed. Norwegians fled never to return. Harold learned of Norman invasion in aftermath of battle
Norman Conquest of England 1066 1066 England Normans 14 October 1066 Hastings Harold II England William Normans Normans King Harold killed. William luckily shades a day long battle and wins the whole of England as his prize
Byzantine - Seljuk War Byzantium Turks 26 August 1071 Manzikert Romanus IV Byzantium Alp Arslan Turks Turks Romanus captured and much of army destroyed. Decline of Byzantium sometimes dated from this battle
Crusades 1st 1096 1099 Crusaders Turks 1 July 1097 Dorylaeum Bohemond, Godfrey de Bouillon, Raymond of Toulouse Crusaders Kilij Arslan Turks Crusaders Crusaders ambushed on march by Turkish horse archers
Crusaders Muslems 28 June 1098 Antioch Bohemond Crusaders Kerboga Muslems Crusaders Bohemond besieged in recently captured Antioch. Defeated Kerboga in sortie across the River Orontes (carrying the Holy Lance). Bohemond founds principality of Antioch
9 June 1099 18 July 1099 Jerusalem Godfrey de Bouillon Crusaders Iftikhar Muslems Crusaders Jerusalem stormed and all Jews and Muslems massacred (70,000). Godfrey died in 1100 and was replaced by his brother Baldwin as King of Jerusalem
12 August 1099 Ascalon Godfrey de Bouillon Crusaders al-Afdal Muslems Crusaders Force sent to relieve Jerusalem destroyed in a surprise attack by Crusaders
3rd 1189 1192 Crusaders Saracens August 1189 12 July 1191 Acre Guy de Lusignan, Richard I Kingdom of Jerusalem Saladin Saracens Crusaders Siege followed capture of Acre by Muslems in 1187. Richard I executed the captured defenders
7 September 1191 Arsuf Richard I Crusaders Saladin Saracens Crusaders Saladin again attacked a crusader army on the march but this time Richard was much too good for him. Saladin never again engaged with Richard in open battle. Richard failed to capture Jerusalem but negotiated a peace treaty
4th 1202 1205 15 April 1205 Adrianople Baldwin of Flanders Crusaders Kalojan Bulgars Bulgars Baldwin captured and crusaders forced to retreat back to Constantinople. Baldwin died in captivity. Bulgars overran Thrace and Macedonia
7th 1248 1254 Crusaders Egypt 8 February 1250 11 February 1250 Mansura Louis IX Crusaders Fakr-ed-Din, Bundukdari Egypt Egypt Fakr-ed-Din killed. After initial suucess the crusader army was virtually destroyed. Louis was captured and ransomed
9th Crusaders Muslems 1291 Acre ? Knights Templar al-Ashraf Muslems Muslems Capture brought about the end of the Latin Kingdom
Wars of the Crusader States Crusaders Egypt 6 September 1101 Ramleh Baldwin Kingdom of Jerusalem Saad-el-Dawileh Egypt Crusaders Crusaders drove back an invading Egyptian army
Crusaders Muslems 28 June 1119 Ager Sanguinis Roger of Salerno Antioch Illghazi Aleppo Muslems Roger of Salerno killed. Crusader army destroyed. Also called Battle of Sarmada
Crusaders Muslems 11 June 1125 Azaz Baldwin II Kingdom of Jerusalem Il-Bursuqi Seljuks Crusaders Restored some influence to Crusaders after defeat in 1119
Crusaders Saracens 4 July 1187 Horns of Hattin Guy de Lusignan Kingdom of Jerusalem Saladin Saracens Saracens Crusader army on way to relief of Tiberias annihilated by Saladin. Guy captured but spared. Saladin took Jerusalem in October 1187 bringing about the 3rd Crusade. Battle a turning point for Crusader States
Anglo - Norman War English Normans 28 September 1106 Tinchebray Henry I English Robert Curthose Normans England Henry captured his elder brother Robert and imprisoned him. England and Normandy were reunited under one ruler
Byzantine - Seljuk War Byzantium Turks 17 September 1176 Myriokephalon Manuel I Comnenus Byzantium Kilij Arslan II Turks Turks Byzantine invading army massacred
Islamic Wars: Spain Moors Spanish States 16 July 1212 Las Navas de Tolosa Caliph al-Nasir Moors Alfonso VIII Spanish States Spanish States Gave impetus to "The Reconquest"
Anglo-Imperial Invasion of France 1213 1214 England France 30 May 1213 31 May 1213 Damme William de Longespee England ? France England English fleet caught large French fleet anchored off Damme and destroyed it
Holy Roman Empire 27 July 1214 Bouvines Otto IV Holy Roman Empire Philip Augustus France France Otto IV, supported by King John of England decisively defeated outside Lille
Mongol Wars Invasion of Kwarezmian Empire 1218 1224 Mongols Kwarezmians June 1220 Samarkand Genghis Khan Mongols Alub Khan Kwarezmians Mongols City betrayed and population massacred
1221 Indus Genghis Khan Mongols Jallalladin Kwarezmians Mongols Kwarezmian army of the Punjab destroyed
Invasion of Russia 1221 1224 Mongols Kiev 1223 Kalka River Subotai, Chepe Mongols Msitislav Kiev Mongols Russian army routed but Mongols decided against full-scale invasion
1380 Mongols Russia 8 September 1380 Kulikovo Mamai Mongols Dmitri Ivanovich Golden Horde Russia Golden Horde driven off. Mamai assassinated
War in China 1214 1226 Mongols Jurchen Jin 1214 Beijing Genghis Khan Mongols Jin Emperor Jurchen Jin Mongols Beijing captured and population massacred
Mongols Hsia 1226 Yellow River Genghis Khan Mongols Hsiai Emperor Hsia Mongols Mongols crushed Hsia rebellion and followed up by invading China
Invasion of Europe 1237 1242 Mongols Teutonic Kingths 9 April 1241 Liegnitz Kaidu Mongols Henry II of Silesia Teutonic Kingths Mongols European army routed. Kaidu moved to join his father Genghis Khan in Hungary
Mongols Hungary 11 April 1241 Mohi Subotai Mongols Bela IV of Hungary Hungary Mongols Hungarian army destroyed giving Mongols control of Eastern Europe to the Danube. Death of Genghis Khan in 1242 menat the invaders returned to Mongolia
Invasion of Syria 1258 1260 Mongols Mamelukes 3 September 1260 Ain Jalut Kitboga, Behemond Mongols Qutuz Mamelukes Mamelukes Kitboga captured and executed. Mongol/crusader army defeated by Mamelukes. Prevented a Mongol conquest of Egypt
Civil War 1388 1395 Mongols Golden Horde 1391 Kandurchka Timur Mongols Toktamish Golden Horde Mongols Golden Horde ceased to be a threat to Europe
Invasion of India 1398 1399 Mongols Indians 17 December 1399 Panipat Timur Mongols Mahmud Tughluk Indians Mongols Indian army routed and Delhi plundered.
Invasion of Turkey 1402 1402 Mongols Ottoman Turks August 1402 Ankara Timur Mongols Bayezid Ottoman Turks Mongols Bayezid captured and died in captivity. Ottoman army destroyed. Timur had dammed river so that Turks only had a small well as water supply. Timur acknowledged as ruler until death in 1405
English Baronial Wars 1264 1265 Royal Army Barons 14 May 1264 Lewes Henry III Royal Army Simon de Montfort Barons Barons Henry captured and controlled by Barons for a year
4 August 1265 Evesham Prince Edward Royal Army Simon de Montfort Barons Royal Army Simon de Montfort killed and Baronial Army destroyed
Anglo -Scottish Wars 1138 1547 England Scotland 22 August 1138 The Standard Archbishop of York England David I Scotland England Battle takes its name from wagon in centre of English line (St Peter, St John and St Wilfred)
27 April 1296 Dunbar John de Warenne England John Balliol Scotland England Decisive English victory
11 September 1297 Stirling Bridge Earl of Surrey England William Wallace Scotland Scotland Vanguard of English army destroyed on crossing the bridge. Wallace went on a pillaging spree (so noble, all he wanted was freedom to kill English people!). Wallace was knighted
22 July 1298 Falkirk Edward I England William Wallace Scotland England First major battle decided by the longbow. Wallace ran away and escaped. Later hung, drawn and quartered
19 June 1306 Methven Earl of Pembroke England Robert the Bruce Scotland England Scots army destoyed in surprise attack
24 June 1314 Bannockburn Edward II England Robert the Bruce Scotland Scotland Poor tactics by Edward led to a rare Scots victory
19 July 1333 Halidon Hill Edward III England Archibald Douglas Scotland England Scots army destroyed. Edward put Balliol on the Scottish throne
17 October 1346 Neville's Cross Ralph Neville, Henry Percy England David II Scotland England Scots army destroyed. David II captured and put into the Tower of London until ransomed in 1357
19 August 1388 Otterburn Henry Percy England James, Earl of Douglas Scotland Scotland Percy captured. Scottish raiding party returned to Scotland
9 September 1513 Flodden Earl of Surrey England James IV of Scotland Scotland England James IV killed. Scots army destroyed
10 September 1547 Pinkie Cleugh Duke of Somerset England James, Earl of Arran Scotland England Scots army destroyed
Swiss Wars of Independence Swiss Austria 15 November 1315 Morgarten Canton leaders Swiss Duke Leopold Austria Swiss Invading Austrian army destroyed in an ambush
Swiss Burgundy 21 June 1339 Laupen Rudolph von Erlach Swiss Gerald de Vallangin Burgundy Swiss Swiss infantry defeated a contingent of mounted knights
Swiss Austria 9 July 1386 Sempach Canton leaders Swiss Duke Leopold III Austria Swiss Leopold killed. Austrian army defeated and efficiency of Swiss infantry confirmed.
French War in Flanders France Flanders 11 July 1302 Golden Spurs Robert II of Artesia France Willem van Gullik Flanders Flanders French knights massacred - named for the amount of French spurs recovered after the battle
100 Years War 1337 1453 England France 24 June 1340 Sluys Edward III England ? France England 1360 - 1367 Treaty of Bretigny Naval battle in which 190 of 200 French ships were captured
Brittany 26 August 1346 Crecy Edward III England Philip IV France England 1420 Treaty of Troyes Decisive victory for England. Demonstrated superiority of small efficient, trained infantry and archers over ill-disciplined and overconfident chivalry. May be first occasion artillery deployed on a European battlefield
Burgundy 27 March 1351 The Thirty Jean de Montfort England Charles of Blois France France Emprise between 30 men on each side
19 September 1356 Poitiers Prince Edward England John II France England King John captured. Decisive victory for England
29 September 1364 Auray John V of Brittany England Charles of Blois France England English forces supporting Breton succession
25 October 1415 Agincourt Henry V England Charles d'Albret France England Decisive victory for England. Henry secures French throne.
July 1418 20 January 1419 Rouen ? England Guy de Bouteille France England French garrison starved into surrender
17 August 1424 Verneuil Duke of Bedford England Alencon, Douglas and Buchan France England Alencon captured. Douglas and Buchan killed. Scottish element of French army destroyed (it was ever thus)
12 October 1428 7 May 1429 Orleans Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk England Goncourt and Dunois France France City relieved by the French. Marked a turning point in the war
12 February 1429 Rouvray Sir John Falstof England Clermont, Darnley France England Relief column on way to beseigers of Orleans carrying salted herrings. Falstof formed wagons into circle and withstood attacks. Broken barrels sent herrings pouring out over attackers. More Scots killed (never learn do they). Also known as the Battle of the Herrings
15 April 1450 Formigny Thomas Kyriell England Clermont France France English army destroyed and Normandy lost
17 July 1453 Castillon Earl of Salisbury England Jean Bureau France France Shrewsbury killed. English army destroyed. Bordeaux captured. Last battle of the war.
English Baronial Wars 1403 1403 Royal Army Rebels 21 July 1403 Shrewsbury Henry IV Royal Army Henry Percy Rebels Royal Army Percy killed and rebellion surpressed
Wars of the Teutonic Knights 1410 1411 Teutonic Knights Poles, Lithuanians 15 July 1410 Tannenberg Grand Master Teutonic Knights Ladislas II of Poland, Witowt of Lithuania Poles, Lithuanians Poles, Lithuanians Grand Order of Teutonic Knights decisively defeated and its power reduced
Hussite Wars 1419 1436 Hussites Catholics 30 July 1419 Prague Jan Ziska Hussites Sigismund of Bohemia Catholics Hussites Hussite army formed defensive circle of waggons. Catholic army retreated
6 January 1422 Kutna Hora Jan Ziska Hussites Sigismund of Bohemia Catholics Hussites Hussite army pursued, caught and destroyed Catholic army
10 January 1422 Nemecky Bend
30 May 1434 Lipany Procopius Hussites ? Catholics Catholics Taborite armu defeated
Portugese Wars Crisis 1383 - 1385 1383 1385 Portugal Castile 14 August 1385 Aljubarrota Joao I Portugal Juan I Castile Portugal Castilian army routed in war to secure Portuguese succession
Conquest of Ceuta 1415 1415 Portugal Ceuta 14 August 1415 Ceuta Joao I Portugal ? Ceuta Portugal Capture of major trade centres of the Islamic world acted as springboard for Portuguese expansion
Civil War 1449 1449 Alfonso V Don Pedro of Coimbra 20 May 1449 Alfarrobeira Alfonso V King Don Pedro of Coimbra Rebels King Don Pedro killed. End of rebellion by ex-regent Don Pedro against his nephew Alfonso and his half-brother Alfonso of Braganza. Established power of Braganza family
Islamic Invasion of Byzantium 1453 1453 Byzantium Mongols 5 April 1453 29 May 1453 Constantinople Constantine IX Byzantium Mahomet II Moslems Moslems Constantine killed. Byzantium fell and the Empire ended
Wars of the Roses 1455 1487 Lancastrians Yorkists 22 May 1455 St Albans (1) Henry VI Lancastrians Richard of York Yorkists Yorkists Henry VI captured. Richard of York declared Constable of England
23 September 1459 Blore Heath Lord Audley Lancastrians Earl of Salisbury Yorkists Yorkists Audley killed. Lancastrian army routed
18 July 1460 Northampton Duke of Buckingham Lancastrians Earls of March and Warwick Yorkists Yorkists Buckingham killed. Henry VI recaptured by Yorkists
30 December 1460 Wakefield Duke of Somerset Lancastrians Richard of York Yorkists Lancastrians Richard of York and son Edmund killed. Lancastrians marched on London (to St Albans)
2 February 1461 Mortimer's Cross Earl of Pembroke Lancastrians Edward of York Yorkists Yorkists Lancastrian army destroyed
17 February 1461 St Albans (2) Duke of Somerset Lancastrians Earl of Warwick Yorkists Lancastrians Lancastrians victorious. Henry VI released from captivity. Edward of York marched to London and was proclaimed Edward IV
29 March 1461 Towton Duke of Somerset Lancastrians Edward IV Yorkists Yorkists Possibly bloodiest battle fought on English soil. Fought in a blizzard
15 May 1464 Hexham Duke of Somerset Lancastrians John Neville Yorkists Yorkists Somerset executed after battle in which all his army was either killed, captured or dispersed
12 March 1470 Lose Coat Field Earl of Warwick Lancastrians Edward IV Yorkists Yorkists Warwick troops discarded their coats so as to avoid being identified., thus the battle's name
14 April 1471 Barnet Earl of Warwick Lancastrians Edward IV Yorkists Yorkists Warwick killed. Confusing battle fought in thick mist. Lancastrians killed in friendly fire incident led to calls of treachery and the rout of the Lancastrian army
4 May 1471 Tewkesbury Duke of Somerset Lancastrians Edward IV Yorkists Yorkists Somerset and Edward, Prince of Wales killed. Queen Margaret and Henry VI captured, he later dying in captivity
22 August 1485 Bosworth Earl of Richmond Lancastrians Richard III Yorkists Lancastrians Richard III killed. Richmond proclaimed Henry VII
16 June 1487 Stoke Henry VII Lancastrians Earl of Lincoln, Martin Schwarz Yorkists Lancastrians Lincoln and Schwarz killed. In support of the pretender Lambert Simnel who was captured and put to work in the Royal kitchens
Swiss-Burgundian War 1474 1477 Swiss Burgundy 2 March 1476 Granson Canton leaders Swiss Charles the Bold Burgundy Swiss Burgundians driven off
22 June 1476 Morat Canton leaders, Duke of Lorraine Swiss Charles the Bold Burgundy Swiss Burgundian defeated by surprise attack
French Wars in Italy 1266 1266 France Germany 1266 Benevento Charles of Anjou France Manfred of Sicily Germany France Manfred killed at head of combined German-Sicilian force
1495 1504 France Spain 26 April 1503 Cerignola Duke of Nemours France Gonzalez de Cordoba Spain Spain French routed and forced to abandon Naples
3 November 1503 Garigliano Gonzago of Mantua France Gonzalez de Cordoba Spain Spain French trapped and forced to evacuate Italy. Louis XII forced to abandon claim to Naples
1515 1515 France Milan 13 September 1515 14 September 1515 Marignano Francis I France von Winkelried Swiss France Swiss army destroyed and myth of invincibilty also destroyed
1521 1526 France Holy Roman Empire 25 February  1525 Pavia Francis I France Marquis of Pescara Imperial army Imperial army Destruction of French army started period of Spanish control in Italy
Turkish Wars 1480 1573 Turkey Rhodes 23 May 1480 20 August 1480 Rhodes Masih Pashs Turkey Pierre d'Aubusson Knights of St John Knights of St John Repeated Turkish assaults repulsed
Turkey Venice 12 August 1499 25 August 1499 Sapienza ? Turkey Antonio Grimani Venice Turkey Protracted naval battle
Turkey Rhodes 28 July 1522 21 December 1522 Rhodes Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey Philip Villiers de L'Isle Knights of St John Turkey Garrison surrendered and left island to establish new base on Malta. Turkish casualties were very high and account for the generous terms offered
Turkey Hungary 29 August 1526 Mohacs Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey Louis II Hungary Turkey Louis killed. Hungarian army destroyed. Budapest occupied
Turkey Austria 24 September 1529 15 October 1529 Vienna Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey Count Roggendorf Ausiria Austria Onset of winter forced Turks to withdraw. Limit of Turkish penetration in to Europe
Turkey Venice 1538 Prevenza Barbarossa Turkey Andrea Doria Venice Turkey Combined Spanish-Venetian fleet defeated
Turkey Malta 19 May 1565 11 September 1565 Malta Mustapha Pasha Turkey Jean de la Valette Knights of St John Knights of St John Arrival of small reinforcement force led to Turkish withdrawal following immense losses on the Turkish side
Turkey Venice 25 July 1570 9 September 1570 Nicosia Lala Mustafa Turkey Nicolo Dandolo Venice Turkey Garrison and civilians massacred
18 September 1570 6 August 1571 Famagusta Lala Mustafa Turkey Marcantonio Bragadino Venice Turkey Garrison and civilians massacred.
Turkey Holy League 7 October 1571 Lepanto Euldj Ali Turkey Don John of Austria Holy League Holy League One of the decisive naval battles. Ottoman fleet destroyed. Cervantes at this battle
French Wars of Religion 1560 1598 Huguenot Catholic League 14 March 1590 Ivry Henry IV Navarre Huguenots Charles de Mayenne Catholic League Huguenots Catholic army routed
The Eighty Years War 1568 1648 Netherlands Spain 21 July 1568 Jemmingen Louis of Nassau Netherlands Fernando of Alva Spain Spain Dutch rebellion crushed
21 August 1573 8 October 1573 Alkmaar ? Netherlands Frederic de Toledo Spain Netherlands Spanish failed to capture Alkmaar
11 November 1586 Zutphen Earl of Leicester Anglo-Dutch Duke of Parma Spain Spain Anglo-Dutch siege of Zutphen broken by battle which saw the death of Sir Philip Sidney
24 January 1597 Turnhout Prince Maurice Netherlands Varax Spain Netherlands Cavalry battle
5 July 1601 14 September 1604 Ostend ? Netherlands Archduke Albert of Austria Spain Spain Garrison surrendered after 3 year siege
Spanish Armada 1588 1588 England Spain 28 May 1588 29 July 1588 Spanish Armada Lord Howard of Effingham England Medina Sidonia Spain England English fleet and poor weather caused destruction of Spanish fleet
Irish Wars O'Donnell's Revolt 1594 1594 England Ireland 7 August 1594 Ford of the Biscuits Henry Duke, Edward Herbert England Hugh Maguire, Cormac Ireland Ireland Rebels ambushed supply column which spilled its provisions into the river, hence the name
Tyrone's Rebellion 1598 1603 England Ireland 14 August 1598 Yellow Ford Henry Bagenal England Tyrone, O'Donnell Ireland Ireland Rebels ambushed supply column which was destroyed
26 December 1601 Kinsale Charles Mountjoy England Tyrone Ireland England Irish army trying to relieve Spanish garrison in Kinsale was destroyed