Art and Culture/Wars and Battles - BC

From Quiz Revision Notes
War Date Started Date Ended Protaganists Major Battles/Sieges Treaty/Armistice Comments
Year or Date Started Year or Date Ended Location/Name Commanders Victor Date(s) Location/Name
Ancient Egypt Egypt Megiddo 1469 Megiddo Tuthmoses III Egypt King of Megiddo Megiddo Egypt First recorded battle in history
Hittites 1294 Kadesh Rameses II Egypt Muwatalis Hittite Inconclusive Egyptian army survived ambush but was unable to capture Kadesh
Persian Wars 500 448 Greek Cities Persia 490 Marathon Miltiades and Callimachus Athens Datis and Artaphernes Persia Athens 450 Peace of Callias Callimachus killed. Phaedipides runs from Marathon to Athens to announce victory
480 Thermopylae Leonidas Sparta Xerxes Persia Persia Leonidas and 200 Spartans defend pass against huge Persian army. Path to outflank Spartans betrayed to Persians by Ephialtes - all Spartans killed
480 Salamis Themistocles Athens Xerxes Persia Athens Naval battle. Smaller Athenian lead navy (actual commander a Spartan - Eurybiadas) defeats large Persian force.
479 Plataea Pausanias Sparta Mardonius Persia Sparta Persians attack withdrawing Greeks. Mardonius killed. Persians leave Greece
479 Mycale Leotychidas Sparta ? Persia Sparta Brought Persian Wars to an end
466 Eurymedon Cimon Athens (Delian League) ? Persia Athens (Delian League) Combined naval and land battle. Returned independence to Greek Cities in Asia Minor and loot financed work on the Acropolis
Sicilian Wars 500 340 Greek Cities in Sicily Carthage 480 Himera Theron, Gelon Syracuse Hamilcar Carthage Syracuse Purportedly fought in same day as Marathon
Greek Cities in Sicily Etruscans 474 Cumae ? Syracuse ? Etruscans Syracuse Naval battle which saw the end of Etruscan influence in Italy
Greek Cities in Sicily Carthage 340 Crimesus Timoleon Syracuse ? Carthage Syracuse
Peloponnesian War 431 404 Athens Sparta 425 Pylos Demosthenes, Cleon Athens Epitadas Sparta Athens Athenians trapped Spartans on island of Sphakteria
424 Delium Hippocrates Athens Pagondas Boeotia Boeotia One of the bloodiest battles of the war. Massive 25-deep Theban phalanx first deployed. Hippocrates killed
422 Amphipolis Cleon Athens Brasidas Sparta Sparta 421 Peace of Nicias In 424 Sparta captured Amphipolis (partly due to poor generalship of Thucydides who was exiled). Following armistice 423 - 422 Athens attempted recapture. Both Cleon and Brasidas killed in ensuing battle. Led to Peace of Nicias.
418 Mantinea ? Athens Agis II Sparta Sparta Spartan invasion of Argos
415 413 Syracuse Nicias, Lamachus, Alcibiades Athens Hermocrates, Gyllippus the Spartan Syracuse Syracuse Athenians besieged Syracuse on Sicily. Alcibiades recalled on charges of sacrilege. Lamachus killed.Reinforced despite obvious unlikelihood of success eventually whole force destroyed including Nicias
410 Cyzicus Alcibiades, Theramenes, Thrasybulus Athens Mindarus Sparta Athens Mindarus killed
405 Aegospotami Conon Athens Lysander Sparta Sparta Naval battle. Spartans ticked Athenians into beaching their ships without a guard. Spartans burnt 161 out of 170 ships and deprived Athens of its fleet, thus precipitating end of the war.
Persian Civil War 401 400 Cyrus the Younger (claimant) Artaxerxes II (encumbent) 401 Cunaxa Cyrus the Younger Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus victorious but Cyrus killed and rest of army defeated. Greek commanders lured to death. Xenophon helps lead Greeks back to the Black Sea and safety (the "Anabasis")
Greek City-State Wars 395 362 Sparta Thebes 373 Tegyra Pelopidas Thebes ? Sparta Thebes First victory of the Theban Sacred Band
Athens July 371 Leuctra Epaminondas Thebes Cleombrotus Sparta Thebes King Cleombrotus killed. New Theban tactic - refused right
364 Cynoscephalae Pelopidas Thebes Alexander of Pherae Pherae Inconclusive Pelopidas killed
362 Mantinea Epaminondas Thebes ? Sparta, Athens Inconclusive First use of cavalry as a strike force. Epaminondas killed.
Sacred War (3rd) 356 346 Phocis Thebes 352 Crocus Field Philip II Macedon Onomarchus Phocis Macedon 346 Peace of Philocrates First significant victory of Macedon over Greek troops. Onomarchus killed
Sacred War (4th) 339 337 Macedonia Athens 2 August 338 Chaeronea Philip II Macedon Stratocles Athens, Thebes Macedon 337 Common Peace First major battle for Alexander the Great. Theban Sacred Band destroyed. Macedon breaks power of Greek City-States
Samnite Wars 343 290 Samnium Rome 321 Caudine Forks Gavius Pontius Samnium Veturius, Postumius Rome Samnium 321 - 315 Caudine Peace Roman army trapped in a narrow valley and starved into surrender. One of only a few major defeats which impinged on the Roman psyche.
295 295 Sentinum Gellius Egnatius Samnium, Gauls Decius, Fabius Rome Rome Gellius Egnatius and Decius killed but decisive victory left Rome in control of Central Italy
Wars of Alexander the Great 336 323 Macedonia Persia May 334 Granicus Alexander the Great Macedon Arsites, Spithridates, Memnon Persia Macedon Macedonian army attacked across river. Alexander's life saved by Cleitus the Black
October 333 Issus Alexander the Great Macedon Darius III Persia Macedon Narrow position prevented larger Persian army deploying fully
1 October 331 Gaugamela (Arbela) Alexander the Great Macedon Darius III Persia Macedon Macedonian army formed in double line to prevent envelopment. Alexander defeated a massive Persia army by aiming attack in direction of Darius III
331 Megalopolis Antipater Macedon Agis III Sparta Macedon Alexander's regent in Macedon, Antipater, defeats Spartan revolt, purportedly on the same day as Gaugamela
India June 326 Hydaspes Alexander the Great Macedon Porus India Macedon Alexander divided his army, pinning Porus across the river until he could get the majority of his army over.
Lamian War 323 322 Macedonia Greek City-States 322 Crannon Antipater Macedon Menon Greek City-States Inconclusive Greeks needed conclusive victory to take advantage of Alexander's death but had to settle for separate peace
Successor Wars 323 281 Macedonia Seleucids, Egypt 301 Ipsus Antigonus Monopthalmus Macedon Seleucus I Nicator Seleucids Seleucids Demetrius failed to return to help his father after successful cavalry charge. Antigonus killed.
Pyrrhic War 280 275 Tarentum Rome 280 Heraclea Pyrrhus of Epirus Tarentum Laevinius Rome Tarentum First "Pyrrhic victory"
April 279 Asculum Pyrrhus of Epirus Tarentum Decius Rome Tarentum Second "Pyrrhic victory"
275 Beneventum Pyrrhus of Epirus Tarentum Manius Curius Rome Rome Failed night attack on the Roman camp lead to defeat for Pyrrhus. Name of place originally Malventum
Punic War (1st) 264 241 Rome Carthage 260 Mylae Duilius Rome Hannibal Carthage Rome 241 Treaty of Catulus First use by the Romans of the "corvus"
256 Ecnomus Vulso, Regulus Rome Hamilcar Carthage Rome Largest naval battle of the war
249 Drepana Claudius Pulcher Rome Adherbal Carthage Carthage Only Carthaginian naval victory of the war
241 Aegates Islands Catulus Rome Hanno Carthage Rome
Punic War (2nd) 218 201 Rome Carthage December 218 Trebbia Sempronius Rome Hannibal Carthage Carthage 201 Treaty of Scipio Hannibal sets up ambush
21 June 217 Trasimene Flaminius Rome Hannibal Carthage Carthage Hannibal traps Roman army on march along the shores of Lake Trasimene
2 August 216 Cannae Varro, Paulus Rome Hannibal Carthage Carthage Hannibal annihilates Roman army in perfect double envelopment
207 Metaurus Livius, Claudius Nero Rome Hasdrubal Carthage Rome Hasdrubal defeated attempting to reinforce Hannibal
202 Zama Scipio Africanus Rome Hannibal Carthage Rome Scipio inflicts Hannibal's only defeat
Macedonian Wars (2nd) 200 197 Rome Macedon 197 Cynoscephalae Flaminius Rome Philip V Macedon Rome Roman army destroyed a Macedonian phalanx
Syrian War 195 190 Rome Syria 190 Magnesia Lucius Scipio Rome Antiochus III Syria Rome Massive victory for Rome
September 190 Myonnessus ? Rome ? Syria Rome Naval battle.  Treaty at end of war meant Rome was now involved in the East.
Macedonian Wars (3rd) 172 167 Rome Macedon 22 June 168 Pydna Paullus Rome Perseus Macedon Rome King Perseus defeated and captured
Mithridatic War 89 84 Rome Pontus 86 Chaeronea Sulla Rome Archelaus Pontus Rome Sulla built fence to protect against chariots - 1st recorded use of fieldworks
Parthian War 55 38 Rome Parthia June 53 Carrhae Crassus Rome Surenas Parthia Parthia Roman army trapped in semi-desert by horse archers supplied by camel train. Roman army destroyed. Crassus killed
Gallic War 58 49 Rome Gaul August 58 September 58 Mulhouse Caesar Rome Ariovistus Gaul Rome Caesar repelled an invasion of Gaul by Germanic tribes
52 Alesia Caesar Rome Vercingetorix Gaul Rome Seige of massive Gaullish citadel involved double circumvallation
Rome: War of the 1st Triumvirate 49 45 Caesarians Pompeians 10 July 48 Dyrrachium Caesar Caesarians Pompey the Great Pompeians Inconclusive Caesar unsuccessfully attempted to encircle Pompey's army in Greece and withdrew towards Thessaly
9 August 48 Pharsalus Caesar Caesarians Pompey the Great Pompeians Caesarians Pompey defeated fled to Egypt, where murdered
17 March 45 Munda Caesar Caesarians Gnaius Pompey, Sextus Pompey Pompeians Caesarians Sons of Pompey defeated and Gnaius executed
Rome: War of the 2nd Triumvirate 44 31 Caesarians Republicans 3 October 43 Philippi (1st) Octavian, Antony Caesarians Brutus, Cassius Republicans Caesarians Cassius committed suicide
23 October 43 Philippi (2nd) Octavian, Antony Caesarians Brutus Pompeians Caesarians Brutus committed suicide
Caesarians Antonians 2 September 31 Actium Octavian Caesarians Antony, Cleopatra Antonians Caesarians Naval battle. Caesarian fleet commanded by Agrippa. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt and committed suicide