Physical World/Fish

From Quiz Revision Notes
Hammerhead shark.jpg
Hammerhead shark

family Sphyrnidae

So named for the unusual and distinctive structure of their heads, which are flattened and laterally extended into a hammer shape called a cephalofoil. The positioning of the eyes, mounted on the sides of the shark's distinctive hammer head give the shark good 360-degree vision in the vertical plane


family Orectolobidae

Name given to the 12 species of carpet sharks

Wobbegongs spend much of their time resting on the sea floor. They are well camouflaged with a symmetrical pattern of bold markings which resembles a carpet

Whale shark.jpg
Whale shark

Rhincodon typus

A slow-moving filter feeding shark and the largest known extant fish species

Their skin is marked with pale yellow spots and stripes which are unique to each individual

Basking shark.jpg
Basking shark

Cetorhinus maximus

The second largest fish, after the whale shark. It is found in all the world's temperate oceans, and is a slow moving and generally harmless filter feeder. Known for its greatly enlarged mouth

Thresher shark.jpg
Thresher shark

genus Alopias

Named for and easily recognised by its exceptionally long, thresher-like tail or caudal fins which it lashes to stun prey


suborder Myliobatoidei

Most stingrays have one or more barbed stingers on the tail, which are used exclusively in self-defence. Fatal stings are very rare, but can happen, most famously in the death of Steve Irwin in 2006

Giant oceanic manta ray.jpg
Manta ray

genus Manta

Manta ray is the largest of the rays and has the largest brain of any fish. It is in the family of eagle rays. Giant oceanic manta ray (pictured) can grow to a width of 7 m

Moray eel.jpg
Moray eel

family Muraenidae

Moray eels are the only animals that use pharyngeal jaws (a second set of jaws) to actively capture and restrain prey. Most species lack pectoral and pelvic fins

Electric eel.jpg
Electric eel

Electrophorus electricus

Capable of generating powerful electric shocks of up to 600 volts. Despite its name, it is not an eel, but rather a knifefish

Giant oarfish

Regalecus glesne

Also called the king of herrings, it is the world's longest bony fish. Its shape is ribbon-like, narrow laterally, with a dorsal fin along its entire length

Ocean sunfish.jpg
Ocean sunfish

Mola mola

The world's heaviest bony fish, it can weigh up to 1000 kg. Sunfish can be as tall as they are long when their dorsal and ventral fins are extended


genus Istiophorus

Sailfishes have a characteristic sail (dorsal fin) on top, which often stretches the entire length of the back. Another notable characteristic is the elongated bill, resembling that of a swordfish. Individuals have been clocked at speeds of up to 68 mph, making them the fastest fish in the ocean


Xiphias gladius

Contrary to popular belief, the "sword" is not used to spear, but instead may be used to slash at its prey to injure the prey animal, to make for an easier catch. Mainly, the swordfish relies on its great speed and agility in the water to catch its prey


genus Sphyraena

Known for its large size and fearsome appearance. Barracudas are snake-like in appearance, with prominent, sharp-edged, fang-like teeth. Known as the "tiger of the sea"


subfamily Epinephelinae

Groupers are teleosts, typically having a stout body and a large mouth. They are mostly protogynous hermaphrodites, i.e. they mature only as females and have the ability to change sex after sexual maturity


genus Megalops

One of the great saltwater game fishes. They are prized not only because of their great size, but also because of the fight they put up and their spectacular leaping ability

Angler fish.jpg

order Lophiiformes

They are bony fishes named for their characteristic mode of predation, in which a fleshy growth from the fish's head (the esca or illicium) acts as a lure. Some deep-sea anglerfish emit light from their escae to attract prey

Archer fish.jpg

Family Toxotidae

Known for their habit of preying on land-based insects and other small animals by shooting them down with water droplets from their specialized mouths

Puffer fish.jpg

Family Tetraodontidae

Generally believed to be the second-most poisonous vertebrates in the world, after the golden poison frog. The meat of some species is considered a delicacy in Japan (as fugu)

Pufferfish can fill its extremely elastic stomach with water until it is much larger and almost spherical in shape

Ocellaris clownfish

Amphiprion ocellaris

Also known as the common clownfish. In the wild, they all form symbiotic mutualisms with sea anemones

The main character in Finding Nemo is an A. ocellaris


Vandellia cirrhosa

Also known as the toothpick fish. a species of parasitic freshwater catfish native to the Amazon Basin

It is attracted to blood and urine, and will (rarely) enter the body by swimming up the penis. It can only be removed by surgery


genus Latimeria

Coelacanths were thought to have gone extinct in the Late Cretaceous, around 66 million years ago, but were rediscovered in 1938 off the coast of South Africa

Two species – West Indian Ocean coelacanth, and Indonesian coelacanth


genus Hippocampus (from Greek for "horse" and "sea monster")

Fertilised eggs grow in the male’s brood pouch

Seahorses rise by expelling water from a swim bladder


order Petromyzontiformes

Jawless fish also known as lamprey eels

The adult is characterised by a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. Lampreys are well known for those species which bore into the flesh of other fish to suck their blood


subclass Dipnoi

Also known as salamanderfish

Freshwater fish. Lungfish have the ability to breathe air. All lungfish have two lungs, with the exception of the Australian lungfish, which only has one


class Myxini

Eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (also called slime eels). They are the only known living animals that have a skull but no vertebral column. Along with lampreys, hagfish are jawless