Physical World/Mammals - 1

From Quiz Revision Notes
Duck-billed platypus

Ornithorhynchus anatinus

Egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania

The male platypus has a spur on the hind foot that delivers venom capable of causing severe pain to humans


family Tachyglossidae

The four extant species, together with the platypus, are the only surviving members of the Monotremata order and are the only extant mammals that lay eggs

Also known as spiny anteaters. Baby echidna is called a puggle


genus Thylogale

Besides their smaller size, pademelons can be distinguished from wallabies by their shorter, thicker, and sparsely haired tails

Usually found in forests


Setonix brachyurus

The quokka is herbivorous and mainly nocturnal. Quokkas can be found on some smaller islands off the coast of Western Australia, in particular on Rottnest Island just off Perth. It is about the size of a domestic cat


genus Potorous

A kangaroo-like marsupial about the size of a rabbit

Gilbert's potoroo is Australia's most endangered animal

Virginia opossum

Didelphis virginiana

The only marsupial found in North America north of Mexico. In the United States, it is typically referred to simply as a possum. It is a solitary and nocturnal animal about the size of a domestic cat.


genus Macrotis

Also known as rabbit-bandicoot

An Australian desert-dwelling marsupial omnivore. Bilbies have a long muzzle and very long ears


order Peramelemorphia

Small to medium-sized, terrestrial marsupial omnivores. They are endemic to the Australia–New Guinea region. Name means "pig rat"

Tasmanian devil.jpg
Tasmanian devil

Sarcophilus harrisii

The size of a small dog, it became the largest carnivorous marsupial in the world following the extinction of the thylacine in 1936

Now found in the wild only on Tasmania


family Vombatidae

There are three species of wombat – Common, Northern Hairy-nosed and Southern Hairy-nosed

Fatso the Fat-Arsed Wombat was an unofficial mascot of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics


Phascolarctos cinereus

An arboreal herbivorous marsupial. Its closest living relatives are the wombats. Because their eucalypt diet has limited nutritional and caloric content, koalas are largely sedentary and sleep for up to 20 hours a day. Koala is one of the few mammals (other than primates) that have fingerprints. Name means “no drink"


genus Dasyurus

A carnivorous marsupial native to Australia and New Guinea. It has a brown coat with white spots. It is primarily nocturnal

Elephant shrew.jpg
Elephant shrew

family Macroscelididae

Small insectivorous mammals native to Africa. Name name comes from a fancied resemblance between their long noses and the trunk of an elephant, and an assumed relationship with the shrews

Also known as sengis


family Tenrecidae

Tenrecs are widely diverse; as a result of convergent evolution they resemble hedgehogs, shrews, opossums, mice and even otters

Found on Madagascar and in parts of the African mainland

Golden mole.jpg
Golden mole

family Chrysochloridae

Insectivorous burrowing mammals native to southern Africa. The golden moles bear a resemblance to the marsupial moles of Australia


Orycteropus afer

Feeds almost exclusively on ants and termites. The name comes from earlier Afrikaans and means ‘earth pig’. Aardvark is sometimes colloquially called antbear, anteater, or the Cape anteater

Rock hyrax.jpg

order Hyracoidea

They are often mistaken for rodents, but are more closely related to elephants and manatees. Four species are recognised; the rock hyrax (pictured), the yellow-spotted rock hyrax, the western tree hyrax and the southern tree hyrax

Borneo elephant.jpg
Borneo elephant

Elephas maximus

Also known as the Borneo pygmy elephant

The Sultan of Sulu introduced captive elephants to Borneo in the 18th century, which were released into the jungle


family Dasypodidae

Some species distinguished by the number of bands on their armour. The giant armadillo grows up to 150 cm, while the pink fairy armadillo has an overall length of up to 15 cm. All species are native to the Americas. Some species roll up into a ball when threatened. The North American nine-banded armadillo tends to jump straight in the air when surprised

Giant anteater

Myrmecophaga tridactyla

Also known as the ant bear

Native to Central and South America. All anteaters have elongated snouts equipped with a thin tongue that can be extended to a length greater than the length of the head; their tube-shaped mouths have lips but no teeth


family Ochotonidae

Within the order of lagomorphs, which also includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares)

It is also known as the "whistling hare" due to its high-pitched alarm call when diving into its burrow


Marmota monax

Also known as a woodchuck, whistle-pig, or land-beaver in some areas It is a rodent of the family Sciuridae, belonging to the group of large ground squirrels known as marmots

Groundhog Day is celebrated on February 2

Prairie dog.jpg
Prairie dog

genus Cynomys

They are a type of ground squirrel. Burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America

Prairie dogs are named for their habitat and warning call, which sounds similar to a dog's bark


family Geomyidae

Also known as pocket gophers

Gophers live in Central and North America. They are commonly known for their extensive tunneling activities

Kangaroo rat.jpg
Kangaroo rat

genus Dipodomys

The common name derives from their bipedal form. They hop in a manner similar to the much larger kangaroo, although they are not related. Native to North America

Baluchistan pygmy jerboa.jpg
Baluchistan pygmy jerboa

Salpingotulus michaelis

Also known as the dwarf three-toed jerboa

Smallest rodent in the world. Adults average only 4.4 cm (1.7 in) in head and body length

Norway lemming

Lemmus lemmus

The Norway lemming has a dramatic three- to four-year population cycle, in which the species' population periodically rises to unsustainable levels, leading to high mortality, which causes the population to crash again

Lemmings do not commit mass suicide when they migrate


genus Dolichotis

A genus of the cavy family. These large relatives of guinea pigs are common in the Patagonian steppes of Argentina


Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

The largest living rodent in the world (ahead of the beaver and porcupine). Found wild in much of South America

Very popular with quiz setters. The Billy Fury of Rodentia


genus Cuniculus

Ground-dwelling, herbivorous rodents found in South and Central America. They are large rodents with dots and stripes on their sides, short ears, and barely visible tails. Similar to guinea pigs


Octodon degus

Small rodent endemic to Chile. It is sometimes referred to as the brush-tailed rat

Degus have an intolerance to dietary sugar and are used in diabetes research

Common agouti

genus Dasyprocta

Native to the Americas. They are related to guinea pigs and look quite similar, but are larger and have longer legs


family Cynocephalidae

Arboreal gliding mammals found in Southeast Asia. They are also known as cobegos or flying lemurs, though they are not true lemurs. Of all the gliding mammals, the colugos have the most extensive adaptation to flight. Their gliding membrane, or patagium, is as large as is geometrically possible

Slow loris.jpg
Slow loris

genus Nycticebus

Only venomous primate. The toxin is produced by licking a gland on their arm, and the secretion mixes with its saliva to activate it

The group's closest relatives are the arboreal slender lorises


family Galagidae

Also known as the bushbaby

Galagos have large eyes that give them good night vision, strong hind limbs, acute hearing, and long tails that help them balance. Their ears are batlike and allow them to track insects in the dark


Perodicticus potto

In the same family as the lorises

The potto inhabits the canopy of rain forests in tropical Africa. It is nocturnal and arboreal

Ring tailed lemur.jpg
Ring-tailed lemur

Lemur catta

The most recognized lemur due to its long, black and white ringed tail. Like all lemurs it is endemic to the island of Madagascar and female dominant


Daubentonia madagascariensis

A lemur native to Madagascar and the world’s largest nocturnal primate

Aye-ayes tap on the trunks and branches of the trees, and listen to the echo produced to find hollow chambers inside. Once a chamber is found, they chew a hole into the wood and get grubs out of that hole with their narrow and bony middle finger


genus Tarsius

Tarsiers are small animals with enormous eyes; each eyeball is approximately 16 mm in diameter and is as large as its entire brain

Restricted to several Southeast Asian islands