Physical World/Mammals - 3

From Quiz Revision Notes

Caracal caracal

Sometimes called the desert lynx or African lynx, but it is not a member of the Lynx genus

The most distinctive feature of the caracal is the long black tufts on the back of the ears


Lynx rufus

Ranges from southern Canada to central Mexico

It has distinctive black bars on its forelegs and a black-tipped, stubby tail, from which it derives its name


Leopardus pardalis

Also known as the dwarf leopard

Distributed extensively within South America

Similar in appearance to a domestic cat. Its fur resembles that of a clouded leopard or jaguar


Leopardus wiedii

Also known as the tree ocelot

Similar to the larger ocelot in appearance, although the head is a little shorter, the eyes larger, and the tail and legs longer


Leptailurus serval

A medium-sized African wild cat native to sub-Saharan Africa

Servals have the longest legs of any cat, relative to their body size


Proteles cristata

A small, insectivorous hyena-like mammal, native to Eastern and Southern Africa

Second animal in the dictionary, after aardvark


Cryptoprocta ferox

A cat-like, carnivorous mammal endemic to Madagascar. Resembles a small cougar

The largest mammalian carnivore on the island of Madagascar


Suricata suricatta

Meerkats are members of the mongoose family native to Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa

Meerkats forage in a group with one "sentry" on guard watching for predators while the others search for food and "Compare The Market”


genus Tapirus

Brazilian, Malayan, Mountain, Baird's – species of tapir

Tapirs inhabit jungle and forest regions of South America, Central America, and Southeastern Asia

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Przewalski's Horse

Equus ferus przewalskii

Native to the steppes of central Asia, notably Mongolia

The horse is named after the Russian colonel Nikolai Przhevalsky (the name is of Polish origin and "Przewalski" is the Polish spelling), who first described the horse in 1881


Equus hemionus

Also known as hemione or Asiatic wild ass

Onagers have never been domesticated. They are among the fastest mammals

There is a Roman siege engine called an onager


family Tayassuidae (New World pigs)

Also known as skunk pig

Native to the Americas


family Tragulidae

Also known as mouse-deer

Chevrotain is French for "little goat"

Java mouse-deer is world’s smallest hoofed mammal


genus Pudu

Northern, southern – species of pudu

Inhabits temperate rainforests in South America

The world's smallest deer


genus Muntiacus

Also known as barking deer

Muntjacs are the oldest known deer. The present-day species are native to South Asia

A large feral population of muntjacs exists in England

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Père David's deer

Elaphurus davidianus

Native to the subtropics of China

First made known to Western science in the 19th century, by Father Armand David, a French missionary working in China. The current world population, now found in zoos around the world, stems from a herd at Woburn Abbey nurtured by the 11th Duke of Bedford


Antilocapra americana

Though not an antelope, it is often known colloquially in North America as the prong buck or pronghorn antelope

Fastest land mammal in the Western Hemisphere


Bos gaurus

Also known as Indian bison

Largest extant bovine, native to South Asia and Southeast Asia


Ovibos moschatus

Arctic mammal of the family Bovidae noted for its thick coat and for the strong odour emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives


Rupicapra rupicapra

A goat-antelope species native to mountains in Europe. The chamois has also been introduced to the South Island of New Zealand

Chamois leather is traditionally made from the hide of the chamois


Boselaphus tragocamelus

Largest Asian antelope

Found throughout most of India

Mature male appears ox-like and is also known as the blue bull


Tragelaphus eurycerus

Large African forest antelope

Bongos are characterised by a striking reddish-brown coat, black and white markings, white-yellow stripes and long slightly spiraled horns

Grey rhebok

Pelea capreolus

Antelope endemic to Southern Africa

The Afrikaans/Dutch spelling of the species, reebok, lends its name to the sportswear manufacturing company


genus Connochaetes

Two species, both native to Africa: the black wildebeest, or white-tailed gnu; and the blue wildebeest, or brindled gnu

Blue wildebeest are known for their long distance migrations


Oreotragus oreotragus

Small species of African antelope

Klipspringer means "rock jumper" in Afrikaans

They are around 1.5 m tall and can jump 10 times their own body height


Giraffa camelopardalis

Tallest living terrestrial animal and the largest ruminant

Heart of a giraffe has to generate around double the normal blood pressure for a large mammal in order to maintain blood flow to the brain against gravity. Giraffe has seven neck (cervical) vertebrae, the same as a human


Okapia johnstoni

The okapi and the giraffe are the only living members of the family Giraffidae

Named in recognition of the British Governor of Uganda, Sir Harry Johnston, who first acquired an okapi specimen for science


Vicugna pacos

A domesticated species of South American camelid. It resembles a small llama in appearance

Alpaca fleece is a lustrous and silky natural fibre


Vicugna vicugna

Believed to be the wild ancestor of domesticated alpacas

Vicunas produce small amounts of extremely fine wool, which is very expensive

Vicuna is smaller than the guanaco


Lama guanicoe

Native to the arid, mountainous regions of South America

The guanaco's soft wool is valued second only to that of the vicuna

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Blue whale

Balaenoptera musculus

At 30 metres in length and 180 tonnes in weight, it is the largest extant animal and is the heaviest known to have existed

Herman Melville called the blue whale "sulphur-bottom" in Moby-Dick

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Bowhead whale

Balaena mysticetus

Also known as the Greenland right whale or Arctic whale

Does not have a dorsal fin. Named after its arching lower jaw. Its baleen is the longest of any whale at 3 metres


Monodon monoceros

Toothed whale that possesses a large "tusk" from a protruding canine tooth. Narwhal tusks were believed to be the horns from the legendary unicorn

It lives year-round in the Arctic waters

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Beluga whale

Delphinapterus leucas

Also known as white whale, or sea canary due to its high-pitched twitter

Lives in the Arctic. It is entirely white as an adult

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Sperm whale

Physeter macrocephalus

Also known as cachelot

The largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator. It has the largest brain of any animal

The head of the whale contains a liquid wax called spermaceti, from which the whale derives its name

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Killer whale

Orcinus orca

Also known as orca, blackfish, or grampus

A toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family, of which it is the largest member


Phocoena sinus

A rare species of porpoise endemic to the Gulf of California. Smallest cetacean

Porpoises are small toothed whales that are closely related to oceanic dolphins

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Elephant seal

genus Mirounga

Two species – northern and southern

Elephant seals take their name from the large proboscis of the adult male, which resembles an elephant's trunk. Southern elephant seal bulls typically reach a length of 4.9 metres and a weight of 3,000 kg


Dugong dugon

Dugong, together with the manatees, is one of four living species of the order Sirenia

It has a fusiform body (tapered at both the head and the tail). Dugong is distinguished from the manatees by its fluked, dolphin-like tail, but also possesses a unique skull and teeth


genus Trichecus

Also known as sea cows

Three species – Amazonian, West Indian, and West African

Manatees have a paddle-shaped tail