Physical World/Reptiles

From Quiz Revision Notes
Gila monster.jpg
Gila monster

Heloderma suspectum

Venomous lizard native to the southwestern United States and Mexico

A drug derived from Gila monster’s saliva is used to manage type 2 diabetes

Komodo dragon.jpg
Komodo dragon

Varanus komodoensis

Largest living lizard, growing up to a length of 3 metres. Named after an island in Indonesia

Largest animal to undergo parthenogenesis


family Sphenodontidae

Endemic to New Zealand

Their name derives from the Maori language, and means "peaks on the back"


genus Varanus

Australian monitor lizard

Features prominently in Aboriginal mythology

Saltwater crocodile.jpg
Saltwater crocodile

Crocodylus porosus

Largest reptile (the Nile crocodile is the second largest reptile). The males of this species can reach sizes up to 6.3 m (20.7 ft) and weigh up to 1,360 kg (3,000 lb)

The most dangerous breed of crocodile to humans


Gavialis gangeticus

Also known as the gavial. Native to the northern part of the Indian Subcontinent

Characterised by its extremely long, thin jaws. Males develop a hollow bulbous nasal protuberance at the tip of the snout upon sexual maturity


subfamily Caimaninae

Caimans inhabit Central and South America. They are relatively small crocodilians

Closely related to alligators

Inland taipan.jpg
Inland taipan

Oxyuranus microlepidotus

Also known as the fierce snake

Considered the most venomous snake in the world; based on the median lethal dose value in mice. Endemic to Australia

Green anaconda.jpg
Green anaconda

Eunectes murinus

A boa species found in South America. It is the largest, heaviest, and second longest (behind the reticulated python) known extant snake species

King cobra.jpg
King cobra

Ophiophagus hannah

The world's longest venomous snake, with a length up to 5.7 m

Ophiophagus is a Greek-derived word which means "snake-eater", and its diet consists primarily of other snakes

Black mamba.jpg
Black mamba

Dendroaspis polylepis

Native to sub-Saharan Africa

It takes its common name not from the colour of its scales, but from the interior of its mouth, which is inky-black. The venom of the black mamba is highly toxic

Eastern diamondback rattlesnake.jpg
Eastern diamondback

Crotalus adamanteus

A venomous pit viper species found in the southeastern United States. It is the heaviest though not the longest venomous snake in the Americas and the largest rattlesnake


Crotalus cerastes

A rattlesnake found in the desert regions of the southwestern United States and Mexico. Also known as the horned rattlesnake

As its body progresses over loose sand, it forms a letter J-shaped impression

Galapagos giant tortoise.jpg
Galapagos giant tortoise

Chelonoidis nigra

Largest living species of tortoise – can weigh up to 250 kg

Giant tortoises exist only on two remote archipelagos: the Galapagos, and Aldabra in the Indian Ocean

Leatherback sea turtle.jpg
Leatherback sea turtle

Dermochelys coriacea

Differentiated from other modern sea turtles by its lack of a bony shell. Instead, its carapace is covered by skin and oily flesh. It is capable of maintaining an elevated body temperature, which allows it to swim in cold waters. Largest of all living turtles

Hawksbill sea turtle.jpg
Hawksbill sea turtle

Eretmochelys imbricata

Easily distinguished from other sea turtles by its sharp, curving beak, and the saw-like appearance of its shell margins

Hawksbill shells were the primary source of tortoiseshell material used for decorative purposes