Sport and Leisure/Tour de France

From Quiz Revision Notes

History

The Tour de France began to promote a new daily sports newspaper, L'Auto ahead of the largest paper in France, Le Vélo, which sold 80,000 copies a day. Some of Le Vélo 's advertisers had disagreed with the paper's support for Alfred Dreyfus, a soldier found guilty of selling secrets to the Germans but eventually acquitted after being sent to Devil's Island. The Tour was to promote their new rival paper, L'Auto. The editor, Henri Desgrange, planned a five-week race from 31 May to 5 July. This proved too daunting and only 15 entered. Desgrange cut the length to 19 days and offered a daily allowance

The first Tour de France was staged in 1903. The route was split into six stages over a distance of 2,428 km, with a few days’ rest between each one. The race was won by Frenchman Maurice Garin, who won 3,000 francs

Maurice Garin also won the 1904 Tour de France, by a small margin over Lucien Pothier, but was subsequently stripped of the title which was awarded to Henri Cornet. Spectators felled trees to hold back rivals and beat up others at night outside St-Étienne. Cheating was rife too between riders and nine were thrown out during the race for, among other things, riding in or being pulled by cars. The first four finishers were all disqualified. Cornet, aged 19, remains the youngest ever winner of the Tour

The 1906 Tour saw the introduction of the flamme rouge (red flame), a red flag that indicates that the cyclists only have one kilometre to go

The race captured the imagination. L'Auto's circulation rose from 25,000 to 65,000; by 1908 it was a quarter of a million. The Tour returned after its suspension during World War One and continued to grow, with circulation of L'Auto reaching 500,000 by 1923. More stages were added to the race.

In 1909 Francois Faber from Luxembourg became the first non-Frenchman to win the Tour de France, and his record of winning five consecutive stages still stands

The 1910 Tour saw the introduction of the voiture balai (broom wagon), a vehicle which follows the race to collect riders who cannot continue

Mountain stages were introduced in the Pyrenees in 1910 and the Alps in 1911

Odile Defraye won the 1912 Tour de France, which was the last tour decided by a points system instead of overall best time. He was the first Belgian to win the Tour

Tour de France was not held between 1915 and 1918 due to World War I

The leader in the first Tour de France was awarded a yellow armband. The colour yellow was chosen as L'Auto printed its newspapers on yellow paper. The yellow jersey was added to the race in 1919. The first rider to wear the yellow jersey was Eugène Christophe

The 1922 Tour de France was won by Firmin Lambot, aged 36, the oldest ever winner of the Tour

The 1926 Tour de France was the longest Tour in history, with a total distance of 5,745 km (3,570 miles). The maximum length of the Tour now is 3,500km (2,200 miles)

Charles Pelessier won 8 stages in the 1930 Tour de France (a record equaled by Eddy Merckx in 1970 and Freddy Maertens in 1976) but finished in ninth place

The mountains classification was added to the Tour de France in the 1933 edition and was first won by Vicente Trueba, who was known as "The Spanish Flea”

The first individual time trial was in the 1934 Tour de France

Until 1938 the Tour was open to anyone who could support himself. These riders were called touriste-routiers

Tour de France was not held between 1940 and 1946 due to World War II

In 1944, L'Auto was closed, and rights to the Tour were owned by the government. Jacques Goddet was allowed to publish another daily sports paper, L'Équipe, which was given the right to organise the 1947 Tour de France.

The points classification was added to the Tour de France in the 1953 edition and was first won by Fritz Schär

The 1954 Tour de France was the first time that the Tour started outside France, in Amsterdam

National teams contested the Tour until 1961

The race has finished since 1975 with laps of the Champs-Élysées. The polka-dot jersey for the winner of the mountains classification, and the white jersey for the winner of the young rider classification (first won by Francesco Moser), were both introduced in 1975

Phil Anderson from Australia became the first non-European to wear the yellow jersey of the Tour de France in 1981. The following year he became the first non-European to win the white jersey

Greg LeMond of the USA became the first non-European winner in the 1986 race

In 1993 ownership of L'Équipe moved to the Amaury Group, which formed Amaury Sport Organisation, the current organisers of the Tour

In the 1995 Tour de France, several cyclists crashed on the descent of the Portet d'Aspet, including Fabio Casartelli. Casartelli's head hit a concrete barrier at high speed without wearing a helmet and he was declared dead in the hospital

Bjarne Rees from Denmark became the first Scandinavian winner in the 1996 race

Cadel Evans became the first Australian winner in the 2011 race

2013 Tour de France was the 100th edition of the Tour de France. It started on the island of Corsica for the first time

British riders won the Tour six times between 2012 and 2018 (Froome won four times, Wiggins and Thomas once each). Vincenzo Nibali won in 2014

2019 Tour de France was won by Egon Bernal (Colombia, Team Ineos)

2020 Tour de France was won by Tadej Pogacar (Slovenia, UAE Team Emirates)

Classifications

General classification

The maillot jaune (yellow jersey) is worn by the general classification (or overall time) leader

Maurice Garin was the first winner in 1903

Four riders have won the general classification five times in their career: Jacques Anquetil, Eddy Merckx, Bernard Hinault, and Miguel Indurain

Chris Froome has won the general classification four times

Three riders have won the general classification three times: Philippe Thys, Louison Bobet, and Greg LeMond

Six riders have won the Tour without winning a stage: Firmin Lambot, Roger Walkowiak, Gastone Nencini, Lucien Aimar, Greg LeMond and Oscar Pereiro

Eddie Merckx holds the record for the number of stage wins (34), followed by Bernard Hinault (28) and Mark Cavendish (26)

Eddy Merckx holds the record for the number of yellow jerseys (96), followed by Bernard Hinault (75) and Miguel Indurain (60)

The French bank Crédit Lyonnais has sponsored the maillot jaune since 1987 and give the yellow jersey holder a stuffed lion at the end of the stage

Mountains classification

The ‘King of the Mountains’ wears a white jersey with red dots (maillot à pois rouges), referred to as the polka dot jersey

The Tour has five categories for ranking the mountains the race covers. Most climbs are designated from Category 1 (hardest) to Category 4 (easiest), based on steepness, length, and how far into the stage they are encountered. A climb that is harder than Category 1 is designated as hors catégorie ("beyond categorization") – include Alpe d'Huez, Col du Galibier and Mont Ventoux.

Polka dot jersey was first won by Lucien Van Impe

One rider has won the mountains classification seven times: Richard Virenque

Two riders have won the mountains classification six times: Federico Bahamontes and Lucien Van Impe

Points classification

The maillot vert (green jersey) is awarded for sprint points. The colour green was chosen because the first sponsor was a lawn mower producer

Points are given to the first 15 riders to finish a stage, with an additional set of points given to the first 15 riders to cross a pre-determined 'sprint' point during the route of each stage

Different numbers of points are awarded for each type of stage: flat, medium mountain, high mountain, time trial, and intermediate sprint

One rider has won the points classification seven times: Peter Sagan

One rider has won the points classification six times: Erik Zabel

One rider has won the points classification four times: Sean Kelly

Young rider classification

The maillot blanc (white jersey) is for the best-placed rider under the age of 26

Four riders have won both the young rider classification and the general classification in the same year: Laurent Fignon (1983), Jan Ullrich (1997), Alberto Contador (2007), and Andy Schleck (2010)

Two riders have won the young rider classification three times: Jan Ullrich and Andy Schleck

Team classification

The team classification is assessed by adding the time of each team's best three riders each day. The competition does not have its own jersey but since 2006 the leading team has worn numbers printed black-on-yellow. Until 1990, the leading team would wear yellow caps. As of 2012, the riders of the leading team wear yellow helmets. During the era of national teams, France and Belgium won 10 times each

Each of the 22 teams in the Tour de France has 9 riders

Combativity award

In the current system that has been active since 2003, a jury selects the most combative cyclist of each stage (excluding time trials). There is no jersey for the most combative rider, but he can be recognized by the race number worn on his back: it consists of a white number on a red background instead of the usual black on white. At the end of the Tour de France, a "super-combativity award" is given to the most combative cyclist of the race. Also known as the most aggressive rider prize

Intermediate sprints classification

The red jersey was awarded to the leader of the intermediate sprints classification in the Tour de France. The competition was first calculated in 1971, but the jersey was only awarded from 1984. Because the non-finish sprints also awarded points for the points classification, the intermediate sprints classification was considered redundant and has not been awarded since 1989. Barry Hoban won in 1974. The last winner was Sean Kelly

Combination classification

In 1968 the combination classification was introduced in the Tour de France, and was awarded with a white jersey. The jersey was awarded to the cyclists that did best in all other classifications: general, points, and mountain. From 1975 onwards, the white jersey was given to the best young cyclist, and the combination classification temporarily disappeared. In 1985, the combination classification was again reintroduced, and this time the combination jersey was used (which has yellow, green and red polka dot elements on a white background). The combination jersey was awarded for the last time in 1989. Eddy Merckx won the classification five times

Lanterne Rouge

The rider who has taken most time is called the lanterne rouge (‘red lantern’, as found at the end of a train). In 1939 and 1948 the organisers excluded the last rider every day, to encourage more competitive racing

Belgium rider Wim Vansevenant has been lanterne rouge of the Tour de France three times, in 2006, 2007 and 2008. He is the only man ever to have finished last three times

Doping

Riders in early Tours consumed alcohol

The three Pelissier brothers (Charles, Henri and Francis) abandoned the 1924 Tour de France, and gave an interview where they admitted using strychnine, cocaine, chloroform, aspirin, ‘horse ointment’ and others drugs to keep going

Tommy Simpson died in 1967 climbing Mont Ventoux after taking amphetamine

The “Festina Affair” (1998) was a series of doping scandals, doping investigations and confessions by riders to doping that occurred during and after the 1998 Tour de France (known as the “Tour of Shame”). The affair began when a large haul of doping products was found in a car of the Festina cycling team just before the start of the race. By 2000, all nine Festina riders had confessed to using erythropoietin (EPO) and other doping substances during the 1998 Tour

Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso were banned by their teams a day before the start of the 2006 Tour due to the Operacion Puerto doping case. American rider Floyd Landis, who finished the Tour as holder of the overall lead, had tested positive for testosterone after he won stage 17, but this was not confirmed until some two weeks after the race finished. In 2008 Landis lost his appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, and Óscar Pereiro was named as winner

Jan Ullrich was retroactively banned from 2011, and all results gained since 2005 were struck off. He admitted to blood doping in 2013

In 2012 the Court of Arbitration for Sport banned 2010 Tour winner Alberto Contador for two years for doping, and Andy Schleck  was named as winner of the race

During the 2012 Tour, Frank Schleck (older brother of Andy Schleck) tested positive for a banned diuretic and was immediately disqualified from the Tour

In October 2012 USADA released a report on doping by the U.S. Postal Service cycling team, implicating, amongst others, Lance Armstrong. The UCI acted upon this report, formally stripping Armstrong of all titles since 1 August 1998, including all seven Tour victories, and announced that his Tour wins would not be reallocated to other riders

Appearances

The most appearances have been by Sylvain Chavanel, who rode his 18th and final Tour in 2018, followed by George Hincapie (USA), Stuart O'Grady (Australia), and Jens Voigt (Germany) with 17. In light of Hincapie's suspension for use of performance enhancing drugs, before which he held the mark for most consecutive finishes with sixteen, having completed all but his very first, Joop Zoetemelk holds the record for the most finishes, having completed all 16 of the Tours that he started

Route

The modern editions of the Tour de France consist of 21 day-long stages over a 23-day period and cover up to 3,500 kilometres (2,200 miles)

The race alternates between clockwise and counterclockwise circuits of France. In even-numbered years, it follows a clockwise route through France. The Tour is known La Grande Boucle (The Great Loop)

Since 1975 the race has finished with laps of the Champs-Élysées. There tends to be a gentlemen's agreement: while the points classification is still contended if possible, the overall classification is not fought over; because of this, it is not uncommon for the de facto winner of the overall classification to ride into Paris holding a glass of champagne

Bordeaux has had the most starts or finishes after Paris, 80 times

Alpe d'Huez was the first mountain-top finish in 1952, won by Fausto Coppi. The road to the Alpe d'Huez from Le Bourg d'Oisans, the town at its foot, climbs an almost vertical rock in 21 bends. Each bend is dedicated to an Alpe d'Huez winner

Mont Ventoux is often claimed to be the hardest in the Tour because of the harsh conditions. Tommy Simpson died on the mountain in 1967, suffering from heat exhaustion. There is a memorial to Simpson near the summit, which has become a shrine to fans of cycling

A memorial to Henri Desgrange stands at the top of the Col du Galibier, which was his favourite mountain. The highest ever stage finish in the Tour de France was at Col du Galibier in 2011

The highest point in any tour is called the roof of the tour, and the rider who leads there wins The Souvenir Henri Desgrange

Col du Tourmalet is the highest paved mountain pass in the French Pyrenees. It has been included in the Tour more than any other pass, starting in 1910. At the col is a memorial to Jacques Goddet, director of the Tour de France from 1936 to 1987, and a large statue of Octave Lapize (the first rider over the summit in 1910) gasping for air as he struggles to make the climb. The Souvenir Jacques Goddet prize is awarded for the first rider to cross the Col du Tourmalet summit

A small cycling museum is at the summit of the Col d'Izoard, along with a memorial to Fausto Coppi and Louison Bobet

Grand Départ

The start of the course is known as the Grand Départ. Since the 1950s it has typically taken place in a different town each year, and since the 1970s it has been common to award the Grand Départ to cities outside France as a way of increasing international interest in the competition and the sport. The right to host the Grand Départ is now highly sought after

The first Grand Départ was in the Paris suburb of Montgeron

The first Grand Départ outside Paris was in Evian in 1926

The first Grand Départ outside France was in 1954, when the Tour started in Amsterdam. This was followed by Brussels in 1958 and Cologne in 1965

The 1998 Grand Départ was in Dublin. Chris Boardman won the prologue but crashed out on stage 2 while wearing the yellow jersey

The Tour started in Great Britain for the first time in 2007, with the Prologue being held in London, and the first full stage from London to Canterbury

Prior to 2013, the Tour de France had visited every region of Metropolitan France except Corsica. The opening three stages of the 2013 Tour were held on Corsica as part of the celebrations for the 100th edition of the race

The Grand Départ team presentation in 2014 took place on 3 July in Leeds at the First Direct Arena

Leading riders

Jacques Anquetil was the first cyclist to win the Tour de France five times. He rode – and won – his first Tour de France in 1957, and won every year from 1961 to 1964. In 1961 he wore the yellow jersey for the whole race. His win in 1964 was his most famous, featuring an elbow-to-elbow duel with Raymond Poulidor on the road up the Puy de Dôme mountain. Suffering indigestion after his excesses on a rest day, Anquetil is reputed to have received treatment from his team manager in the form of a swallow of champagne. Anquetil was the first cyclist to win all three of the Grand Tours (Tour de France, Giro d’Italia and Vuelta a España)

Lance Armstrong was diagnosed with testicular cancer in 1996. He won the Tour de France seven consecutive times from 1999 to 2005. He was a member of the US Postal/Discovery team. Armstrong retired from racing at the end of the 2005 Tour de France, but returned to competitive cycling with the Astana team in 2009, finishing third in the Tour de France later that year. Armstrong was disqualified from each of those races and banned from cycling for life for doping offenses by the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) in 2012

Federico Bahamontes won the Tour de France in 1959. Jacques Anquetil was whistled as he finished the Tour on the Parc des Princes because spectators had worked out that he and others had contrived to let Bahamontes rather than the Frenchman Anglade win, as the French team was unbalanced by internal rivalries. He was a climbing specialist and won the mountains classification six times between 1954 and 1964. Bahamontes was the first cyclist to complete a "career triple" in winning the King of the Mountains classification in all three Grand Tours. His nickname was "The Eagle of Toledo"

Gino Bartali won the Tour de France in 1938 and 1948 – the largest gap between victories in the race. Bartali's feat of winning three consecutive mountain stages in the 1948 Tour de France has never been equaled. Bartali's rivalry with Fausto Coppi divided Italy. Bartali played an important part in the Assisi resistance movement that prevented thousands of Italian Jews being sent to concentration camps in World War II

Louison Bobet was the first rider to win the Tour de France in three successive years, from 1953 to 1955. He also finished third in 1950, winning the mountains classification. Bobet refused to accept his first yellow jersey because it had not been made with the pure wool he believed the only healthy material for a rider

Alberto Contador won his first Tour de France in 2007 beating Cadel Evans by 23 seconds, the second-closest in the Tour's history, riding for Discovery Channel. He was unable to defend the title in 2008, due to doping allegations against the Astana team. In 2009, Contador won his second Tour, beating Andy Schleck and Lance Armstrong. In 2010, Contador became the seventh rider to win a Tour de France (later disqualified) without winning a stage. A decision by the Court of Arbitration for Sport in 2012 found Contador guilty of accidental ingestion of the prohibited substance Clenbuterol and hence he was stripped of his 2010 Tour de France title, and his results since that race, including victory in the 2011 Giro d'Italia, were voided, and he was suspended until August 2012. Contador has won all three Grand Tours of road cycling

Fausto Coppi won the Tour de France in 1949 and 1952. Coppi won the 1952 Tour by 28m 27s and the organiser had to double the prizes for lower placings to keep other riders interested. He was the dominant international cyclist of the years each side of the Second World War and he won the Giro d'Italia five times

Laurent Fignon won the Tour de France in 1983 and 1984, riding for the Renault-Elf team. In 1984 he beat former teammate Bernard Hinault by over 10 minutes. He was runner-up to Greg LeMond in 1989. His nickname was "The Professor"

Charly Gaul from Luxembourg won the 1958 Tour de France, and the mountains classification in 1955 and 1956. His climbing ability earned him the nickname of "The Angel of the Mountains" in the 1958 Tour de France, which he won with four stage victories

Bernard Hinault is one of two cyclists to have won each Grand Tour more than once (the other being Alberto Contador). He won the Tour de France in 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982 and 1985. He came second in 1984 and 1986 and won 28 stages, of which 13 were individual time trials. He remains the last French winner of the Tour de France. Hinault was nicknamed "Le Blaireau" (the badger). In 1985, Hinault’s lieutenant at La Vie Claire was Greg LeMond, who helped Hinault win the Tour. In 1986, Hinault was supposed to return the favour and let LeMond win, but Hinault rode an aggressive race. LeMond won the Tour, but he felt betrayed by Hinault and the La Vie Claire team leadership

Miguel Indurain won five consecutive Tours de France from 1991 to 1995. He finished 11th in the 1996 Tour de France, won by Bjarne Riis. His ability and physical size earned him the nickname "Miguelón" or "Big Mig". His resting pulse rate was 28 beats per minute. Indurain was a strong time trialist, gaining on rivals and riding defensively in the climbing stages. Raced for the Banesto team

Sean Kelly from Waterford raced in 14 Tours, with a highest overall placing of fourth in 1985. He won the points classification four times, in 1982, 1983, 1985 and 1989. He also won the intermediate sprints classification three times and won five stages

Greg LeMond became the first non-European cyclist to win the Tour de France in 1986, and he remains the only official winner from USA. LeMond was accidentally shot with multiple pellets while hunting in 1987 and missed the next two Tours. In the 1989 Tour de France, LeMond was trailing Laurent Fignon by fifty seconds at the start of the final stage, a time trial into Paris. LeMond rode for an average speed of 54.55 km/h, the second fastest time trial ever ridden in the Tour de France, and won the stage. Fignon's time in the stage was 58 seconds slower than LeMond's, costing him the victory and giving LeMond his second Tour title. The final margin of victory of eight seconds was the closest in the Tour's history. This was the last time the final stage in the Tour was a time trial. LeMond won his third and final Tour in 1990 without winning a stage

Eddy Merckx won the Tour de France five times, in 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972 and 1974. The 1969 race is unique in that it is the only time that a single cyclist has won not only the general classification, but the points classification and mountains classification as well. During stage 14 of the 1975 Tour de France a spectator leapt from the crowd and punched Merckx in the kidney. Frenchman Bernard Thevenet took over the lead, and after Merckx fell and broke his cheekbone, he was unable to take back the lead, and Thevenet became the winner of the race. Merckx won a record 34 stages and spent a record 96 days in the yellow jersey. He also won the points classification three times and the mountains classification twice. His nickname was "The Cannibal"

Vincenzo Nibali is one of six cyclists who have won the three Grand Tours in their career. He finished third in the 2012 Tour, and won the 2014 Tour after taking the yellow jersey on stage 2 from York to Sheffield. He rides for the Astana team and his nickname is "The Shark"

Marco Pantani won the Tour de France in 1998. He also won the young rider classification in 1994 and 1995. Although Pantani never tested positive during his career, his career was beset by doping allegations. He died of acute cocaine poisoning in 2004, aged 34. His nickname was "The Pirate"

Raymond Poulidor was known as "The eternal second", because he finished the Tour de France in second place three times and in third place five times. He never wore the yellow jersey. Poulidor was the first rider to be tested for drugs in the Tour de France

Stephen Roche won the Tour de France in 1987, beating Pedro Delgado by 40 seconds, and is the only Irishman to win the Tour de France. Later that year, with victory at the World road race championship, Roche became only the second man to win the Triple Crown of Cycling (Tour de France, the Giro d'Italia and the Road World Cycling Championship), after Eddie Merckx. He struggled with knee injuries and never contended in the Grand Tours after 1987

Peter Sagan from Slovakia has won four stages of the Tour de France, He was also the winner of the points classification, in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015; as a result, Sagan became the first rider to win the classification in his first four attempts. He also won the World Road Race Championships in 2015. Sagan was disqualified from the 2017 Tour for causing Mark Cavendish to crash

Philippe Thys was the first cyclist to win the Tour de France three times, winning in 1913, 1914, and 1920. In the 1913 Tour he broke his bicycle fork and had to find a bicycle shop to mend it. The repair cost him a 10 minute penalty

Jan Ullrich won the Tour de France in 1997, and finished as runner-up in 1996 and 1998. He won the young rider classification three times. He finished as runner-up to Lance Armstrong three times, and came close to beating Armstrong in 2003. In 2006, Ullrich was barred from the Tour de France amid speculation of having doped. In 2012, Ullrich was found guilty of a doping offence by the Court of Arbitration for Sport. He was retroactively banned from August 2011, and all results gained since May 2005 were removed from his Palmarès

Lucien van Impe won the Tour de France in 1976, beating Eddy Merckx. He won the mountains classification in the Tour de France six times. Van Impe started 15 Tours de France and reached the finish in Paris every time

Richard Virenque won the mountains classification seven times between 1994 and 2004, beating the record set by Federico Bahamontes and Lucien van Impe. He was implicated in the Festina Affair (see above) doping scandal, and criticised by the media and satirists for his denial in the face of increasing evidence and his pretence of having been doped without his knowledge

Erik Zabel won a record nine points classifications in Grand Tours including wearing the final green jersey in the Tour de France a record six consecutive years from 1996 to 2001. He was beaten in 2002 by Australian cyclist Robbie McEwen. In 2007 Zabel admitted using EPO to prepare for the 1996 Tour de France

Joop Zoetemelk started and finished the Tour de France a record 16 times. He won the Tour in 1980 and came second six times. His career coincided with the rise and dominance of Eddy Merckx and Zoetemelk was often criticised for following rather than attacking Merckx

British riders

Chris Boardman won three stages and wore the yellow jersey on three separate occasions at the Tour de France. He won the prologue of the 1994 Tour de France with what was then the fastest time ever recorded. In 1998 Tour de France, when the Tour began in Dublin, he won the prologue but crashed on stage 2 while wearing the yellow jersey. He was a member of the GAN team, later renamed the Crédit Agricole team

Mark Cavendish has won 26 Tour de France stages putting him third on the all-time list. Cavendish won stage 11 of the 2010 Tour, but his lead-out rider, Mark Renshaw, was disqualified from the Tour after head-butting Julian Dean while leading out his teammate. In 2012 was named the Tour de France's best sprinter of all time by L'Equipe. In the first stage of the 2014 Tour de France, Cavendish crashed out during a collision he caused in the final few seconds of the sprint finish. He suffered a separated right shoulder, and had to abandon the Tour. Cavendish won the points classification in 2011, and has finished second in three other Tours. In 2012 he achieved his fourth consecutive victory on the Champs-Élysées. He won stage one of the 2016 Tour, claiming him his first Tour de France yellow jersey of his career. Cavendish crashed with Peter Sagan on stage four of the 2017 Tour de France, forcing him out of the race

Steve Cummings won stage 14 of the 2015 Tour de France. It was the first Tour de France stage win for both Cummings and his African team MTN-Qhubeka

Chris Froome was born in Kenya and has ridden under a British licence since 2008. He joined Team Sky in 2010. At the 2012 Tour de France, riding as a domestique for Bradley Wiggins, Froome won stage 7 and finished second overall. Froome won the 2013 Tour de France, and finished runner-up in the mountains classification. In 2014, Froome crashed out on stage 5 of the Tour de France after falling three times over two days. He won again in 2015, and also won the mountains classification, becoming the sixth rider to take the yellow and polka dot jerseys in the same year and the first to do so since Eddy Merckx in 1970. He won his third and fourth Tours in 2016 and 2017 and finished third in 2018. Froome missed the 2019 Tour after a high-speed crash into a wall while training for the Critérium du Dauphiné

Barry Hoban formerly held the record for the most stage wins in the Tour de France by a British rider, winning eight between 1967 and 1975. He holds the record for the most Tours completed by a British rider – having finished 11 of the 12 he started between 1965 and 1978. He was also the only Briton to have won two consecutive stages of the Tour until Mark Cavendish matched it in 2008

David Millar was banned for two years in 2004 after admitting taking EPO. He went on to win four stages of the Tour de France and is the only British rider to have worn all Tour de France jerseys. Millar rode for Garmin-Sharp from 2008 to 2014

Robert Millar won the mountains classification competition in the 1984 Tour de France and finished fourth overall. Millar was the first rider from an English speaking country to have won the mountains classification. This was the highest Tour finish for a Briton until Bradley Wiggins finished third in the 2009 Tour de France. He rode the Tour de France eleven times completing the race eight times

Brian Robinson was the first Briton to finish the Tour de France and the first to win a Tour stage, in 1958

Max Sciandri won stage 11 of the 1995 Tour de France. He competed as an Italian national up to February 1995, then took British citizenship

Tommy Simpson became the first British rider to wear the yellow jersey, finishing sixth overall in the 1962 Tour de France. During stage 13 of the 1967 Tour de France, Simpson collapsed and died during the ascent of Mont Ventoux. He was 29 years old. The post-mortem examination found that he had mixed amphetamines and alcohol; this diuretic combination proved fatal when combined with the heat, the hard climb of the Ventoux and a stomach complaint. A memorial near where he died has become a place of pilgrimage for many cyclists. His death prompted tour officials to begin a program of drug testing

Geraint Thomas was a domestique to Chris Froome. He won the first stage of the 2017 Tour de France to become the first Welshman to wear the yellow jersey. In 2018, he won the Tour de France, ahead of Tom Dumoulin and Chris Froome. He was runner-up to Team Ineos teammate Egan Bernal in 2019

Bradley Wiggins rode in the 2009 Tour de France for Garmin–Slipstream and finished fourth. In October 2012, following the disqualification of Lance Armstrong, who had originally placed third in the general classification, Wiggins was promoted to third place overall. This decision retroactively gave him the first podium finish by a British rider in Tour de France history. He joined Team Sky in 2010. In the 2012 Tour de France, Wiggins took over the yellow jersey by finishing third on stage 7. During stage 14, a mountain stage, a spectator threw carpet tacks onto the road. Several riders suffered punctures, including Cadel Evans. Wiggins and his fellow members of Team Sky emerged without a puncture. Believing that a puncture resulting from an unfortunate incident should not determine the fate of a competitor, Wiggins then had his team-mates and the rest of the peloton slow down to allow Evans and other affected cyclists to catch up. It was perceived as a generous act of sportsmanship and Wiggins was called "Le Gentleman" as a result. Wiggins became the first British rider to win the Tour, with teammate Chris Froome in second place

Michael Wright rode the Tour de France eight times and won three stages, in 1965, 1967 and 1973

Sean Yates won a stage of the Tour de France in 1988 and was the first British rider to win a time trial. Yates moved to Motorola in 1991, where he rode with Lance Armstrong. During stage 6 of the 1994 Tour de France, Yates took the overall lead, becoming the third Briton to wear the maillot jaune. In 2009, he was signed up as director of the newly formed Team Sky. Yates spent three years as the team's lead Director Sportif and, in 2012, presided over Bradley Wiggins victory in the Tour de France

Adam Yates finished fourth overall at the 2016 Tour de France and won the young rider classification, riding for Orica-GreenEDGE

Simon Yates is the twin brother of Adam Yates. Following a doping ban in 2016, he won the young rider classification in the 2017 Tour de France